Bezawit Ketema

Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

Title: Intention to undergo clinical breast examination and its associated factors among women attending rural primary healthcare facilities in south central Ethiopia


Background: Breast cancer is a global public health problem with higher mortality in developing countries. The Ethiopian National Cancer Control Plan recommends clinical breast examination (CBE) for all women aged >18 years. However, there is low breast examination practice in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to describe level of intention to undergo CBE and associated factors among women visited selected rural healthcare facilities in south central Ethiopia using Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB).
Methods: This study used facility-based cross-sectional study design. A total of 420 women participated in this study. Interviewer administered structured questionnaire was adopted from previously published research works and Ajzen’s TPB manual. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 27, was used for analysis. The Binary logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with intention to undergo CBE. Results: In this study, nine out of ten women had never had CBE. Mean score for intention to undergo CBE was 12.55 (SD ± 3.22; min 5, max 20). Intention to undergo CBE was negatively associated with being in the second and middle wealth quantiles compared to the highest wealth quantile, and with the spouse not being able to read or write compared to having attended formal education. Positive attitude and higher subjective norm had relevant association with intention to undergo CBE.
Conclusion: The high score for intention to undergo CBE should encourage primary healthcare facilities to offer CBE. Behavioral change communication interventions could address women’s attitude, subjective norm, and spouse’s education associated with intention to undergo CBE.


Bezawit Ketema, an academician, and a researcher who is affiliated at the School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. She is a clinical nurse in her background and has MPH. Bezawit is currently doing a PhD focusing on non-communicable disease prevention, mainly on promoting screening towards breast cancer, cervical cancer, hypertension, and diabetes mellites. Bezawit’s research interest is mainly in health promotion and communication, especially in promoting healthy lifestyle for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. As an academician she gives courses like Strategic Health Communication, and qualitative research methods for undergraduate and post-graduate students. As a researcher she has published more than 15 articles in peer reviewed scientific journals. Beside her academic and research engagement, Bezawit is Head of the Health Promotion and Public Relation Office, at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.