Dyah Ayu Oktavianie A. Pratama

Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia

Title: Molecular Histopathology of Mammary Carcinogenesis as Approach to Cancer Prediction and Prevention


According to Global Health (2021), cancer become the one of Top 10 diseases causing most death in human. Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Mammary cancer can also occur in animals, including companion animals. Mammary cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplasia in women and non-spayed female dogs and is one of the leading causes of death in both species. Factors that can trigger breast/mammary cancer include the loss of tumor suppressors, the presence of abnormal estrogen activity, and the presence of carcinogens or cancer-triggering substances that can trigger genetic mutations. The incidence of mammary cancer is continuously increasing worldwide. This increasing trend is attributed partly to the little information available on the early changes that occur during mammary gland carcinogenesis. The lack of molecular information of mammary carcinogenesis in animals has impeded the identification of clinically relevant tumor markers beyond histopathology and the introduction of new therapeutic concepts. Numerous factors, molecular and cellular pathways are involved in mammary tumor development and carcinogenesis. Analysis of gene expression in the tissue can observe the process of mammary cancer development at the molecular level. Some of gene act as functional components in regulating cancer development, including tumor suppressor gene; oncogenes and DNA repair genes. The genetic mutation factor by carcinogens or radiation exposure that cause cancer is what prompted researchers to develop mammary cancer in animal models using carcinogenic materials. Recently, more attention has been directed towards mammary cancer prevention. There are several well-established experimental animal models of mammary cancer that provide a wide range of options for investigating the environmental and genetic factors associated with mammary cancer and the therapeutic methods. Using a rat mammary cancer model induced by chemicals, can be concluded that the histopathological change that occur in mammary cancer in rats are similar to those in human beings. In this presentation the expression of some of protein markers are mainly discuss as molecular advanced stages of histopathology on mammary cancer, as an effort for cancer prediction and prevention.

Keywords: molecular histopathology, mammary cancer, carcinogenesis, protein markers.